object oriented programming

What Is Object Oriented Programming? (OOP) with some best books and courses to refer

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What Is Object Oriented Programming? (OOP) with some best books and courses to refer

Object-Oriented Programming is a very popular programming paradigm that is used in many fields. Many newbies find it difficult to learn Object-Oriented programming because of a different approach instead of traditional programming.

Therefore we have simplified Object-Oriented programming with its benefits and courses that will help you to master and get a good grasp of this skill. 

What is Object Oriented Programming?

Object Oriented Programming

Object Oriented Programming (OOP) is a fundamental programming paradigm that uses a totally different approach to develop a program than that of Procedural Oriented Programming.

It is one of the most important programming paradigm developed to overcome the downsides of Procedural Oriented Programming. OOP is the concept that uses Classes and Objects while programming.

Object Oriented Programming has lot of benefits and a vast range of applications and the programs written in OOP are far more readable and efficient.

A programmer must master Object-Oriented programming as it is used in the large scale in industries and quality programming.

Object-Oriented Programming was introduced by Alan Kay cicra in 1966 and Simula is the first programming language with primary features of Object-Oriented Programming

Here are some popular programming languages that support Object Oriented Programming (OOP).

  • Java
  • JavaScript
  • Python
  • C++
  • Ruby

Fundamentals of Object Oriented Programming

 

Fundamentals of Object Oriented Programming

As the name suggests, Object Oriented Programming (OOP) uses the concept of Objects for programming.  Here is a list of fundamentals of OOP.

  1. Classes
  2. Objects
  3. Methods
  4. Data members and member functions

Classes

The building block of object oriented programming is a Class. It is a user-defined data type. Classes are used to develop to a map for the structure of methods, data members and attributes.

Classes contain its own data members and member functions which are accessed by creating an instance of that class. Classes can be referred as blueprints for objects.

A class in C++ can be derived as

class Student {
//program
};

Objects

Objects are instances of Class that has some characteristics and behavior. It is a recognizable entity that plays an essential role in object oriented programming.

When a Class is defined, no memory is allocated to it, but when it an object is created a memory location is allocated.

Method

Method is a procedure or behavior in the concept of OOP. Similar to a Function, Method is a group of reusable code which can be accessed whenever needed.

A method helps the programmer to write efficient and modular codes.

A method is defined inside a class definition. It can be private, protected or public.

Data members and member functions

When any variable using fundamental or derived data type is declared inside a class definition, the variable is known as a Data member. Similarly, when a function is declared in either public or private section, it is known as member function.

There are 2 basic types of data members and member functions, they are

  • Private members
  • Public members
  • Protected members

Principals of Object Oriented Programming

The 4 principal of Object Oriented Programming are:

  • Inheritance
  • Data Encapsulation
  • Data Abstraction and Information hiding
  • Polymorphism

Inheritance

Inheritance is the ability of a class to derive properties and features of another class. During Inheritance, the class that inherits the properties is known as sub-class, and the classes whose properties are inherited are called base class or super class.

Inheritance is one of the most important features of Object Oriented Programming. It is used for code reusability.

Here is an example of inheritance in C++,

// C++ program to demonstrate implementation
// of Inheritance

#include <bits/stdc++.h>
using namespace std;

//Base class
class Parent
{
	public:
	int id_p;
};

// Sub class inheriting from Base Class(Parent)
class Child : public Parent
{
	public:
	int id_c;
};

//main function
int main()
{
	
		Child obj1;
		
		// An object of class child has all data members
		// and member functions of class parent
		obj1.id_c = 7;
		obj1.id_p = 91;
		cout << "Child id is " << obj1.id_c << endl;
		cout << "Parent id is " << obj1.id_p << endl;
		
		return 0;
}

Data Encapsulation

Encapsulation can be defined as enclosing all important information under an object, and only exposing selected information.

In object oriented programming, encapsulation can be executed by binding all the data and functions that can be manipulated.

#include <iostream>
using namespace std;

class Adder {
   public:
      // constructor
      Adder(int i = 0) {
         total = i;
      }
      
      // interface to outside world
      void addNum(int number) {
         total += number;
      }
      
      // interface to outside world
      int getTotal() {
         return total;
      };
   
   private:
      // hidden data from outside world
      int total;
};

int main() {
   Adder a;
   
   a.addNum(10);
   a.addNum(20);
   a.addNum(30);

   cout << "Total " << a.getTotal() <<endl;
   return 0;
}

Data Abstraction and Information Hiding

Data Abstraction in OOP means displaying only essential information and hiding the background details and implementations.

Data Abstraction is used for securing the program by displaying limited information and hiding the manipulative data.

#include <iostream>
using namespace std;

class implementAbstraction
{
	private:
		int a, b;

	public:
	
		// method to set values of
		// private members
		void set(int x, int y)
		{
			a = x;
			b = y;
		}
		
		void display()
		{
			cout<<"a = " <<a << endl;
			cout<<"b = " << b << endl;
		}
};

int main()
{
	implementAbstraction obj;
	obj.set(10, 20);
	obj.display();
	return 0;
}

Polymorphism

As Polymorphism is an essential concept of Object Oriented Programming. The word Polymorphism means ‘many forms’, Polymorphism is a feature of OOP that enables the programmer to use a property to multiple classes.

// C++ program for function overloading
#include <bits/stdc++.h>

using namespace std;
class Studyber
{
	public:
	
	// function with 1 int parameter
	void func(int x)
	{
		cout << "value of x is " << x << endl;
	}
	
	// function with same name but 1 double parameter
	void func(double x)
	{
		cout << "value of x is " << x << endl;
	}
	
	// function with same name and 2 int parameters
	void func(int x, int y)
	{
		cout << "value of x and y is " << x << ", " << y << endl;
	}
};

int main() {
	
	Studyber obj1;
	
	// Which function is called will depend on the parameters passed
	// The first 'func' is called
	obj1.func(7);
	
	// The second 'func' is called
	obj1.func(9.132);
	
	// The third 'func' is called
	obj1.func(85,64);
	return 0;
}

Difference between Object Oriented Programming and Procedural Oriented Programming (OOP vs POP)

Index

Object Oriented Programming

Procedural Oriented Programming

1

Programs are divided into objects.

Programs are divided into functions.

2

It uses bottom up approach.

It uses top to bottom approach.

3

Data hiding is possible.

Data hiding is not possible.

4

Data is used by associated function within the class.

Data can be used globally.

5

It is more secured, due to external functions cannot access other data.

Due to global data, it is less secure.

6

Examples: C++, Java, Python, JavaScript, etc.

Examples: C, Fortran, COBOL, etc.

Benefits of using OOP

There are many benefits of learning and applying Object Oriented Programming. Here is a detailed overview on some of the top OOP benefits.

  • Code Reusability
  • Better Productivity and Efficiency
  • Security
  • Flexibility

 

Code Reusability

Code reusability is most important benefit of Object Oriented Programming. Code reusability is reusing a fraction of code instead of writing it repeatedly. Code reusability can be achieved by inheritance.

 

Better Productivity and efficiency

By using various features of practicing OOP like reusability, programmers find it more efficient in writing a code. Modular codes in OOP helps for easier troubleshooting.

By using Classes and Objects OOP programs, the reliability of the program is increased also complexity in software development can be easily managed.

 

Security

By implementing Data hiding and data abstraction, programs can be developed more secured.

Data Abstraction and hiding helps the programmers to only display limited data and hide the necessary and mutational data.

 

Flexibility

Polymorphism is one of the features in Object Oriented Programming. It helps to add functionalities to multiple classes. Polymorphism provides flexibility, simplicity and extensibility to a programmer in coding.

Books and courses for Object Oriented Programming

Here are some of the best and most popular books and courses that you can refer for learning and mastering the skill of Object Oriented Programming.

Books

 

This is an amazing book for object oriented programming in Python that explains all the important concepts related to OOP.

If you are a beginner and have some basic knowledge of Python programming language this book will help you excel OOP in no time.

This is an excellent book that will help you in thinking process of Object Oriented Programming with all concepts of important in object oriented programming. If you are a complete beginner we highly recommend this book.

Courses

Paid Courses:

course

Conclusion

 

Object Oriented Programming is an important skill in computer programming and is used in variety of applications. Various companies use OOP in programming and search for skilled programmers in this field thus; OOP is the skill worth learning.

In this article we have provided various books and courses that you may refer if you are a beginner or an intermediate learner.


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